Here I am going to write about Taoism. What I mean by Taoism is the thought by Laozi, Lie Yukou, and Zhuang Zhou.
Laozi, and Tao Te Ching
According to a legend, Laozi, a contemporary of and influence on Confucius in the 6th century BCE, was the founder of Taoism. He is said to have been a librarian in the Zhou dynasty. He mastered the Way and virtue. His doctrine was that people should live secretly and stay anonymous. He lived long in Zhou, and seeing it decline, left it and came to a barrier station, where he was badgered by the guard into writing down his doctrine. He wrote, left, and nothing whatever has been heard of him since. His writing is poetical, paradoxical, symbolical, mystical, and condensed. His book is called Tao Te Ching.
Lie Yukou, and Liezi
About Lie Yukou, very little is known. He is said to have flourished in the 4th century BCE. He trained himself in Taoism eagerly. His book Liezi has it that he was even able to ‘ride upon the wind’(Zhuangzi, chap.1). He was an enthusiastic seeker after the truth, asking his teacher and friends for advice, remaining humble, mute and silent, content with honest poverty, pure and lofty. Some say he was more of a doer than a theorist.
Zhuang Zhou, and Zhuangzi
It is thought that Zhuang Zhou was in his prime in the 4th century BCE, later than Lie Yukou. He was a contemporary of Mencius, who was a successor to Confucius. He was a good friend and opponent of Hui Shi, a logician in ancient China. His writing was polemic, his wording often hard to understand, and his allegory unheard-of. Once when he was a field keeper, he was asked to work as a prime minister by the king, which he declined. He preferred living a poor yet free life. His teachings are expounded in Zhuangzi.